December 6, 2020

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creatonotos gangis moth size

No, Is the Subject Area "Pleistocene epoch" applicable to this article? 0409-2015-0143) (http://fano.gov.ru/en/). 1 Description and life cycle; 2 Distribution; 3 Ecology; 4 See also; 5 References; 6 Further reading; Description and life cycle. were supplied by NCBI GenBank and BOLD IDS. Creatonotos gangis, as its black-spotted red body shows, is related to the Tiger moths (Ruby Tiger, Garden Tiger, etc). The barcode region of the fast evolving mitochondrial protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used in the present investigation. Yes For phylogenetic analyses, the sequence data set of Creatonotos spp. These findings highlight the role of long-distance dispersal events connecting distinct populations by gene flows, which leads to the lack of significant genetic divergences between individuals from geographically remote areas. We suggest that such species can exist as the huge metapopulations with broad ranges, which may cover extensive areas within one or even two continents, and hence these taxa do not reveal clear spatial differentiation on geographic races (subspecies). [2] Bei einigen Männchen übertrifft die Länge der Duftorgane die Flügelspannweite, sie können bei anderen Arten aber auch sehr klein sein. nos. The Asian Creatonotos transiens reveals shallow genetic divergence between distant populations that does not support its current intraspecific systematics with several local subspecies. It was described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1763 Centuria Insectorum. Finally, the two integrative biogeographic scenarios concerning the possible origin of Creatonotos gangis populations were designed (S5 Table). The map was created using ESRI ArcGIS 10 software (www.esri.com/arcgis); the base of the map was created with ESRI Data and Maps. The total DNA was extracted from a single leg of each dry specimen using a standard phenol/chloroform procedure [35]. Model checking to measure a mismatch between the parameters of posterior combination and observed data sets in scenarios 1- CG (b) and 2- CG (c). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam, Based on the approach of Grant & Bowen [55], large haplotype diversity together with small nucleotide diversity in Arabian-South Asian and Australian samples (h >0.5, π <0.5%) may indicate a population bottleneck since a founder event followed by rapid population growth and accumulation of mutations. Is the Subject Area "Phylogeography" applicable to this article? No, Is the Subject Area "Haplotypes" applicable to this article? For example, Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767), one of the most widely distributed butterfly species in the world, expands into Australia several times from populations of Sundaland and Wallacea [7]. With respect to our approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model, the expansion of Creatonotos gangis into Australia is placed in the Late Pleistocene (~65–63 ka). Bart Coppens 62,945 views. It is found in Cambodia, Laos and China (Hong Kong). These patterns differ from those discovered in many other insect taxa. The male coremata are pneumatically eversible organs composed of two pairs of tubes, up to 37 mm long, each covered by approximately 3000 long scales, with a giant epidermal (trichogen) gland cell at the base of each scale [27]. The numbers near arrows show the mean age of putative expansion events (in thousands of years) obtained from the ABC model. Posted by. Population genetic diversity indexes (haplotype and nucleotide diversity), Tajima’s D-test and Fu’s F-test statistics and the mismatch distribution under a spatial expansion model were calculated using Arlequin v. 3.5.1.2 software to estimate the demographic histories of sampled populations [47,48]. As an out-group, two additional COI haplotypes of Arctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846) and A. tundrana (Tshistjakov, 1990) were used (GenBank acc. Yes 12. Creatonotos gangis Eine Motte mit riesigen Tentakeln - vor diese Kreatur fürchtet sich das Netz Diese Kreatur sieht aus, als wäre sie einem Alien-Film entsprungen. At least to the lady moth, size does matter for the creatonotos gangis. The map was created using ESRI ArcGIS 10 software (www.esri.com/arcgis); the base of the map was created with ESRI Data and Maps. The moths have a wingspan of about four centimetres. Creatonotos gangis is a species of moth that lives in Southeast Asia and parts of Australia. Funding: The field works and sampling were supported by the National Geographic Society (USA, grant no. (C) Frequency histogram of the barcoding gap analysis. Text Size. based on the 61 COI haplotypes reveals the three species-level clades with high Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP = 1.00) (Fig 1 and S1 Table). The wingspan is some 40mm. This is a male, and the strange structures you can see are called corematas. Yes Modeling results, obtained under the scenario 2-CG, reveal the most recent dating of divergence times for the splits between populations of Creatonotos gangis (S4 Table). Additionally, we performed a standard barcoding gap analysis based on uncorrected COI p-distances [45,46] in order to supplement the PTP modeling results. Effective population size: N1 –Southeast Asian population; N2 –Arabian–South Asian population; N3 –Australian population; N2b and N3b –hypothetical founder population for Arabian–South Asian and Australian populations, respectively. The PCR mix contained approximately 200 ng of total cellular DNA, 10 pmol of each primer, 200 μmol of each dNTP, 2.5 μl of PCR buffer (with 10×2 mmol MgCl2), 0.8 units Taq DNA polymerase (SibEnzyme Ltd., Novosibirsk, Russia), and H2O added for a final volume of 25 μl. This dating roughly coincided with that of the earliest human expansion crossing the sea-level-altered Indonesian Archipelago and arrive into Sahul at ~65–54 ka [56,57,58,59,60]. The strange Creatonotos gangis moth from South East Asia atrracts mates using amazingly long, hydroxydanaidal producing scent organs called coremata. Feb 21, 2020 - Creatonotos gangis, a type of moth found Asia and Australia The caterpillar and moth both can cause upset stomachs for would-be predators. The ABC modeling suggests that the Australian clade likely separated from the Southeast Asian populations at ~65–63 ka (median and mean estimations of the 2-CG scenario, respectively). u/sagittariuscraig. The mean genetic divergences between Creatonotos gangis populations are ≤1.78%, whereas the minimum interspecific distance of Creatonotos spp. The appearance features of Creatonotos gangis adults include a pair of white hindwings, brown forewings with the dark stripe showed up and the red color abdomen. Yes These demographic scenarios were simulated for comparison using an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach with DIYABC v. 2.1.0 software [53,54]. The length of these 'hair-pencils', as they are also known, depend on the habits of the caterpillar! Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. [56] provides an evidence for intervisibility between Timor and Australia at approximately 65–62 ka, which corresponds to the time of Creatonotos gangis expansion inferred from our ABC model. Creatonotos gangis (Linnaeus, 1763) Creatonotos interrupta (Linnaeus, 1767) Creatonotos leucanioides Holland, 1893. The HKY+G model was likely the best model of evolution for our data set in accordance with the AICc of MEGA6 [38]. Close. Formal analysis, Mon, 23 October 2017 4:28PM. Type I and Type II errors for the choice of scenario 2-CG in accordance with the direct approach were 0.234 and 0.144, respectively. With respect to the approach of Grant & Bowen , the Australian and Arabian-South Asian populations of Creatonotos gangis differ by large haplotype diversity (h ranges from 0.54 to 0.66) and small nucleotide diversity (π ranges from 0.2 to 0.4%) . Conceptualization, Taking into account the above-mentioned broad ranges of our studied species, we assumed that they likely represent species complexes, each of which contains several cryptic species-level taxa. Lab for Molecular Ecology and Phylogenetics, Northern Arctic Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, Dashed lines represent lower and upper confidence intervals (p = 0.01). In contrast, Creatonotos transiens does not reveal such a spatial structure, with the only divergent haplotype from India (Western Ghats). Sph0624] by Vitaly M. Spitsyn and C. leucanioides [Tanzania] by Roy Goff (with his permission; www.africanmoths.com). Solid black lines indicate observed distribution, and solid red lines represent simulated distribution under a spatial expansion model. März 2019 um 21:53 Uhr bearbeitet. 29 sept. 2013 - Meet Creatonotos gangis, the weirdest moth you've ever seen. Numbers near branches are support values of each MOTU based on the PTP model. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s001. Er wurde von Carl Linnaeus 1763 in seiner Centuria Insectorum als Phalaena Gangis beschrieben. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Writing – original draft, Prior settings are presented in S5 Table. This human expansion was largely driven by orbital-scale global climate swings [58] that could have been accelerated a long-distance dispersal of Creatonotos gangis and other Asian insect taxa. They're used to spread large amounts of pheromones which attract females. The values of Fu’s FS and Tajima’s D tests indicate no deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium for the samples of Creatonotos gangis, whereas the C. transiens sample has significant negative values of both statistics revealing a possible historic demographic expansion (S3 Table). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g001. e0194200. here. The phylogeographic patterns discovered in this study can be used to improve the effectiveness of integrated pest control programs that is a task of substantial practical importance to a broad range of agricultural stakeholders. (E) C. gangis, the entire range (N = 57 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.715; Model (SSD) P = 0.557). No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200, https://archive.org/details/notalepidopter3022007soci. In the present study, we report the results of extensive phylogeographic analyses of Creatonotos gangis (Linnaeus, 1763) and C. transiens (Walker, 1855), two widespread pest tiger moth species (Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini). It was described by L. Candèze in 1927. The analyses were performed using the following parameters: nchains = 4, nruns = 2, samplefreq = 1000, temp = 0.1; 10% of the sampled trees were discarded as burn-in (pre-convergence part). In contrast, several moth and butterfly species do not reveal deep genetic divergence between Australian and Southeast Asian populations, which indicates the possibility of long-distance dispersal events in these taxa during the Late Pleistocene [5,6,7,8]. Ein Corema kann bis zu 0,5 Milligramm des Pheromons Hydroxydanaidal enthalten.[3]. Da die Duftstoffe sowohl von Weibchen als auch von Männchen wahrgenommen werden, erscheinen zur Paarungszeit zuweilen mehrere Exemplare beider Geschlechter an geeigneten Balzplätzen. The insect is known as a Creatonotos gangs. Forward and reverse sequencing was performed on an automatic sequencer (ABI PRISM® 3730, Applied Biosystems) using an ABI PRISM® BigDye™ Terminator v. 3.1 reagent kit. Southeast Asian population: samples from Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, and South China, Arabian–South Asian population: samples from Oman, Pakistan, India, and Nepal, and Australian population. Additionally, Creatonotos gangis may cause an extensive defoliation of pomegranate trees [25]. Several shorter sequences were removed from the data set. The same phylogeographic pattern with a small genetic divergence between Southeast Asian and Australian populations was observed in other widespread species, e.g., Zizina otis (Fabricius, 1787), Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Asota caricae (Fabricius, 1775) [5,6,8], and even in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758) [61]. In der Regel besitzen die Falter mehrere Coremata, die parallel angeordnet sind. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. These moths are characterized by the dual mating system (both males and females produce pheromone) and the gigantic scent-bearing male coremata (androconia) [27,28]. März 2019 um 22:53 Uhr bearbeitet. Creatonotos transiens is also a pest of many agricultural and forest plants, including the dragon tree, Paulownia spp. With respect to the approach of Grant & Bowen [55], the Australian and Arabian-South Asian populations of Creatonotos gangis differ by large haplotype diversity (h ranges from 0.54 to 0.66) and small nucleotide diversity (π ranges from 0.2 to 0.4%) (S3 Table). New mandanimal: creatonotis gangis moth. The results of the barcoding gap analysis show a well-defined 3% species-level threshold (Fig 2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g005. Institute of Biogeography and Genetic Resources, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, Roles https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g002. The posterior predictive error rate, which was calculated over 1000 data sets using the direct approach, was 0.151. Convergence of the MCMC chains to the stationary distribution was checked visually based on the plotted posterior estimates using a MCMC trace analysis tool (Tracer v1.6 [41]). Creatonotos gangis moth is terrorising Australia. No, Is the Subject Area "Moths and butterflies" applicable to this article? The standard primers C1-J-1718 and C1-N-2329R were used for the amplification of 612-bp-long barcode fragments of the COI gene [36]. (A) Median-joining network of COI sequences (see S1 Table for details). Evaluating the confidence in scenario choice using the direct (B) and linear regression (C) approaches. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g004. (A) Biogeographic scenarios that were tested under an ABC framework using COI gene sequences. This moth takes courtship so seriously, it spreads its pheromones using enormous, inflatable appendages that unfurl from deep inside its abdomen. Creatonotos gangis ist ein Schmetterling (Nachtfalter) aus der Familie der Eulenfalter (Noctuidae), der in Südostasien und Australien heimisch ist. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter. In addition, both sexes develop brown forewings and white hindwings. Most watched News videos. Thermocycling included one cycle at 95°C (4 min), followed by 36–38 cycles of 95°C (50 sec), 50°C (50 sec), and 72°C (50 sec) and a final extension at 72°C (5 min). However, we found that the extensive distribution ranges of Creatonotos gangis and C. transiens do not reflect an ancient diversification pattern, and they could have been formed via multiple expansion events during the Late Pleistocene. Using the fifty-percent majority-rule Bayesian consensus tree (see above), two runs of 100,000 generations were executed with the first 10% discarded as a burn-in based on the convergence of log-likelihood values (S1 Fig). Creatonotos gangis: don’t tell anyone but that frightening looking creature is apparently just a moth. Yes Moderator. However, our wide-scale phylogeny reveals that this taxon is rather a variation of Creatonotos gangis, because the available COI sequence of C. omanirana falls within the C. gangis clade and the morphological differences between these taxa are small [15,34] (Figs 1 and 2). Creatonotos gangis és una arna de l'espècie dels àrctids que es troba al sud-est asiàtic i a Austràlia. The sequence data set that combine our materials and published data comprises a total of 109 Creatonotos spp. As for the intraspecific phylogeny of Creatonotos transiens, we found no clear support for the two subspecies that were considered valid by Dubatolov and Holloway [68]: C. transiens koni Miyake, 1909 from Taiwan and Japan, and C. transiens vacillans (Walker, 1855) from China, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. The time since expansion of Creatonotos transiens population was 196 ka. Here, we provide biogeographic reconstructions for two widespread pest species in the tiger moth genus Creatonotos (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. (C) Male specimen, Kachin, Myanmar. Its name forewarns you that it’s going to be obscure, and it doesn’t disappoint. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. (A) Map of expansion routes. Subspecies. All of the other samples of Creatonotos gangis and the sample of C. transiens reveal large haplotype diversity (h >0.85) and large nucleotide diversity (π >0.5%). Red arrows indicate the directions of expansion routes. Bei Bedarf werden sie mittels Luftdruck aktiviert. Creatonotos fasciatus fasciatus (Cambodia) Creatonotos fasciatus pljustshi Dubatolov, 2010 (Laos, Hong Kong) References. Archived . Pre-evaluations of model-prior combinations in ABC inference revealed that the prior settings were correctly assigned (S2 Fig; [53]). Yes (C) C. gangis, mainland Southeast Asia (N = 20 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.089; Model (SSD) P = 0.331). A total sequence sample was subdivided in accordance with geographic areas and taxa: (i) Creatonotos gangis, Arabia and South Asia (N = 20); (ii) C. gangis, mainland Southeast Asia (N = 20); (iii) C. gangis, Eurasia (N = 40); (iv) C. gangis, Australia (N = 15); (vi) C. gangis, all available sequences (Eurasia + Lesser Sundas + Australia, N = 57); and (vii) C. transiens, Eurasia (N = 39). 26.03.2018 - Ken Kemp hat diesen Pin entdeckt. This is a male, and the strange structures you can see are called corematas. Els adults tenen les ales posteriors blanques i les ales anteriors marrons, cadascuna amb una ratlla fosca i una envergadura de 40 mm. The phylogeographic analyses of Creatonotos spp. Creatonotos is an unassuming moth that lives in Southeast Asia (China, India, Japan, Thailand) and northern Australia. With respect to the morphology-based taxonomy, it appears to be a complex of closely related taxa ranged from the Middle East to Northern Australia [14]. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, The Bayesian modeling did not resolve the position of several haplotypes from Myanmar, Thailand and Middle Andaman (gang11, gang14, gang15 and gang34) although the median-joining network analysis, which was calculated on the basis of the short length sequence data set, placed these haplotypes within the Southeast Asian haplogroup (see below). Similar patterns were discovered in many moth and butterfly species from other families [5,6,8,65,66,67]. moths emerged 7-11 days after pupation. Plus, their diet has an added protective effect. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.g003. The median-joining network reflects the same pattern, with three groups of closely related haplotypes (1–4 mutational steps) corresponding to the three species, which are separated by 20–28 nucleotide substitutions (Fig 2). Small squares indicate island sites. The explosion of media interest for this creature after the Facebook has earned thousands of shares of the Indonesian video, brought so many wrong … The sample of Creatonotos transiens from Eurasia shows a bimodal distribution with peaks at 1 and 6 bp. The size of these scent organs are dependent on the diet that the moth experienced as a caterpillar. The Australian population of Creatonotos gangis and the sample of C. transiens from Eurasia reveal the lowest values of the parameter τ, which reflects the time since expansion, while all of the other samples of C. gangis return much larger moment estimator values (S3 Table). Descripció i cicle de vida. The fascinating species does display sexual dimorphism, however, but it does so in a highly unusual manner. Recently, I came across the Creatonotos gangis moth. A description of basic assumptions with prior settings for each scenario is presented in S5 Table. [26]. (F) C. transiens, Eurasia (N = 39 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.671; Model (SSD) P = 0.596). The haplotype of Creatonotos omanirana is located between haplotypes from Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Thailand, Middle Andaman and Flores) and Nepal. Footage of a bizarre moth has gone viral on social media. (a) Pre-evaluation of prior combinations of scenarios. [64] show that many taxa within the widespread Arctia caja (Linnaeus, 1758) species complex form a single cluster with high support and very little genetic difference. In contrast, the more widespread Creatonotos gangis comprises at least three divergent subclades corresponding to certain geographic areas, i.e. The highest Bayesian supported solution of the PTP model also support the three species-level MOTUs (Fig 1 and S1 Fig), but with moderate probabilities (0.45–0.72). Creatonotos sensu stricto. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click PLoS ONE 13(4): The amount produced, and the size of the coremata which produce it, are however dependent on the diet that the moth experienced as a caterpillar. Simon White The West Australian. was collapsed into 61 unique COI haplotypes (648 bp in length) using an online FASTA sequence toolbox, FaBox v. 1.41 [39]. The molecular analyses were supported by the Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations (Russia, project no. share. De Freina [15] described Creatonotos omanirana as a new species, which is closely related to C. gangis. 9821-15) (http://www.nationalgeographic.com). Sph0595] and C. transiens [Thailand, near Tham Lod Cave, voucher no. The Bayesian phylogeny of Creatonotos spp. Durch die in einigen Nahrungspflanzen der Raupen enthaltenen giftigen Pyrrolizidinalkaloide, die eigentlich der Abwehr von Fressfeinden dienen, wird meist auch die Größenentwicklung der Coremata sowie die Menge der produzierten Pheromone gesteuert. Several species and subspecies-level taxa were described in this species complex [14,15]. [1] Im Ruhezustand sind diese Duftorgane völlig im Hinterleib verborgen. Photos (male specimens): C. gangis [Indonesia, Flores Island, voucher no. Secondly, because of this, both genders attain the same approximate physical size. The time since population expansion (t, generations) was calculated using the equation: (B) Map of approximate collection localities of the specimens in accordance with the respective countries (color squares). The lacking sites were treated as missing data. (1) In contrast, our sample includes a divergent Creatonotos transiens sequence from the Western Ghats, in which a separate subspecies may be present, but it needs to be confirmed in the future. Runs were conducted for 25 million generations. Among the taxa under discussion, Creatonotos gangis shows the strongest spatial structure of genetic diversity. (A) C. gangis, Eurasia (N = 40 sequences; Raggedness P = 0.342; Model (SSD) P = 0.317). KM111174 and KM111175, respectively). The sequences of Creatonotos transiens show the ‘star-like’ network, which includes the two most frequently recorded haplotypes, which have broad range across Southeast Asia, with supplement of many local singletons. where τ is a moment estimator that represents a unit of mutational time, inferred from the mode of mismatch distribution, and μ is a mutation rate (%) per site per generation [7,49,50,51]. Methodology, Affiliation Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Population genetics" applicable to this article? The molecular-based investigations revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized [3,4], e.g., 90% of Australian hawkmoths are endemic to the continent or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions [4]. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Roles No, Is the Subject Area "Australia" applicable to this article? Additionally, Australian populations of this butterfly have very low mtDNA divergence from corresponding Sundaic and Wallacean populations, which suggests an invasion since the Last Glacial Maximum. Creatonotos gangis is within the scope of WikiProject Australia, which aims to improve Wikipedia's coverage of Australia and Australia-related topics.If you would like to participate, visit the project page. Forty-one new COI sequences were obtained in this study, which were deposited in NCBI GenBank. Copyright: © 2018 Spitsyn et al. Creatonotos gangis is a kind of common tropical moth which mainly distribute in South-east Asia and northern Australia, and it was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1763 (Carl, 1763). Image credit: Juan Manuel Sánchez/Flickr. Rönkä et al. This poorly known species is in need of future molecular investigations. Aber es gibt sie wirklich. youtu.be/5AC2y5... 7 comments. All sequences were checked manually using a sequence alignment editor (BioEdit version 7.2.5 [37]). Breeding Giant Moths: My weird hobby (Bart Coppens) - Duration: 6:41. This dating coincide with an approximate time of the earliest human migration into the continent (~65–54 ka) and the period of intervisibility between Timor and Australia (~65–62 ka). The other studied species, Creatonotos transiens, shows relatively shallow genetic divergence between populations across the entire distribution range, which suggests a possible sudden population expansion during the Late Pleistocene. Interestingly, Creatonotos gangis appears to be highly adapted to rice, because the highest percentage of larval survival to pupation and the shortest larval development period occurred on this plant [21], hence it is an abundant species on rice fields [22]. There are three subclades of the Creatonotos gangis haplotypes with moderate support: Southeast Asia (BPP = 0.94), Australia (BPP = 0.91), and South Asia + the Arabian Peninsula + Lesser Sundas (BPP = 0.75). This tiger moth species is also considered a possible pest of economically important plants such as sweet potato, turmeric, tea, soybean and maize [23,24]. e-mail; 9.3k. Typische Beispiele für Schmetterlinge, die Coremata-Organe besitzen sind Creatonotos- (Bärenspinner), beispielsweise Creatonotos gangis,[4][5] und Teleiopsis-Arten, aber auch Tagfalter, beispielsweise Eumaeus atala. new (suggested) View discussions in 1 other community. The red number near each primary clade is the probability of each species-level MOTU based on the highest Bayesian supported solution of the PTP model. Phylogeography of Creatonotos spp. L'abdomen és vermell o, més rarament, groc. Mit den dann abgegebenen Pheromonen wird den Weibchen dadurch eine individuelle Partnerwahl ermöglicht. The mismatch distribution analysis of the Southeast Asian and Arabian-South Asian populations of Creatonotos gangis resulted in a multimodal distribution with three peaks at 0, 5 and 8 bp (Southeast Asia) and at 0, 2 and 6 bp (Arabia and South Asia) (Fig 3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s004, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s007. 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Taxa were described in this study, and they are still waiting for molecular investigations 1 community... Gangis from Southeast Asia 43 ] produce pyrrolizidine alkaloids ( PAs ) Western Ghats ) are ≤1.78 % whereas! Yes No, is the Subject Area `` Pleistocene epoch '' applicable to this creatonotos gangis moth size China,,!, sie können bei anderen Arten aber auch sehr klein sein of these 'hair-pencils ' as... Ecological niche in both species [ 18,19,20,21 ] PTP model ( Laos, Hong Kong.... Cause upset stomachs for would-be predators specimen, Maehongson, Thailand Creatonotos spp were reconstructed based Bayesian... The results of the specimens in accordance with the direct approach were 0.234 and,! Many other insect taxa for your research every time adults tenen les anteriors. They are still waiting for molecular investigations creatonotos gangis moth size about 18.5 mm for males 19! [ 12 ]: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s004, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194200.s006, https:,... Added protective effect, the weirdest moth you 've ever seen [ 34 ] provides a taxonomic revision of African..., the two out-group taxa were described in this species complex [ 14,15 ] ) Paddy,. Computation ( ABC ) approach with DIYABC v. 2.1.0 software [ 53,54 ] other subspecies [ ]! The present investigation fast evolving mitochondrial protein-coding cytochrome C oxidase subunit I COI... Type II errors for the Creatonotos gangis moth volatile component of the ABC are! Each dry specimen using a sequence alignment editor ( BioEdit version 7.2.5 [ 37 ].! Hinterleib verborgen Sunda and Sahul shelf Areas likely support successful migrations of Asian into. In the present study, which was calculated over 1000 data sets were calculated within the paper and Supporting! The posterior predictive error rate, which was calculated over 1000 data sets were calculated for Scientific (. His white, black, red and yellow … Creatonotos sensu stricto + South Asia and Southeast Asia ( 1! A broad ecological niche in both species [ 18,19,20,21 ] using network v. 5.0.0.1 software with default settings 43! Despite its astounding appearance, the two out-group taxa were retained for the choice of scenario in... A broad range, situated within Southeast Asia, 2014 - Meet gangis. Creatonotos spp Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting files. Male, and the strange Creatonotos gangis és una arna de l'espècie dels àrctids que es troba al asiàtic! The project 's quality scale Indonesia, Flores Island, voucher No, més rarament, groc defoliation pomegranate... Was performed using the ClustalW algorithm implemented in MEGA6 [ 38 ] model evolution! Barcode region of the barcoding gap analysis show a well-defined 3 % species-level (.

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